Behavioral Ecology | Marine & Freshwater Ecology
Description of the tadpole and advertisement call of Physalaemus barrioi Bokermann, 1967 (Anura: Leiuperidae)
Diogo B Provete*, Michel V Garey, Denise de C Rossa-Feres
*Corresponding author: Diogo B Provete
Laboratório de Ecologia Animal, Departamento de Zoologia e Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, UNESP campus de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
F1000Posters 2011, 2: 127 (poster) [Portuguese]
4th Congresso Brasileiro de Herpetologia 2009 (4th Brazilian Congress of Herpetology 2009) , 12 - 17 Jul 2009, P000
Tadpoles are described based on 24 specimens between stages 35 and 37. For the characterization of the internal oral morphology, we used 3 specimens in stages 36 and 37. We measured the maximum, minimum and fundamental frequencies; call duration, the interval between calls and calls per minute.
The body of the tadpole is ovoid in dorsal view, depressed in lateral view. The snout is rounded and oral apparatus anteroventral. Upper jaw sheath is in a wide arc, lower U-shaped, both serrated. Marginal papillae are in a single row, alternated ventrally. Oral apparatus laterally emarginated. LTRF 2 (2) / 3 (1). Spiracle sinistral. Anal tube dextral. Nostrils are oval and closer to the eyes than the snout. The tail is short and low. The buccal floor is triangular and wider than long. There are four infralabial papillae, two anteromedial and two laterals. The anteromedial ones are simple, finger-shaped, while the laterals have two or four branches, with two pustulations at the base. There are four tall and cylindrical papillae.
The Buccal Floor Arena (BFA) is ellipsoid, with seven papillae arranged in a U-shape. There are six small papillae next to the buccal pocket; 32 pustulation on BFA. The buccal pocket is perforated, and three times wider than long and oriented horizontally. The free velar surface is 30% of the width of the Buccal floor width (BFW). The length of the branchial baskets is twice its width. The filter cavities are oriented 45; and the glottis is not visible. The esophagus is narrow, roof triangular and 50% longer than wide. The median fold is located 25% of the distance between the mouth opening and esophagus. Internal nares are located 17% of the distance between mouth opening and esophagus. The pre-nasal arena is large with five pustulations. Internal nares ca. 25% of the buccal roof width (BRW), internarial distance ca. 12% BRW. Anterior wall with four pre-nasal papillae. The post-nasal arena has two lateral broad papillae, with serrated margins. The median ridge trapezoidal is slightly wider than high with three tall lateral ridge papillae on each side, rounded, with sharp points, and secondary bifurcations along its flanks. The Buccal Roof Arena (BRA) is rectangular, with five pairs of papillae arranged in a U-shape; 4 anterior bifurcated. There are 40 pustulations on the BRA in mean. The glandular zone has melanophores and the velum is without dorsal pustulations.
The tadpole of P. Barrioi; have 4 infralabial papillae, whereas P. Lisei; has six, P. Barrioi; has four lingual papillae, whereas P. Lisei; has 5, P. Barrioi; has 7 papillae BFA whereas P. Lisei; has 4 on each side, besides having more pustules on BFA. P. Lisei; do not have pre-nasal papillae. P. Barrioi; have five papillae in BRA, whereas in P. Lisei; there are 4, not bifurcated.
The advertisement call consists of a simple note modulated, and seven harmonics. In the initial third of the note, there is a decrease in frequency that is stable and only in the final third for another decrease. The call is composed by a note with 1.16 + 0.01 seconds in duration, minimum frequency 321 Hz + 2.73, maximum frequency 3441 + 09.19 Hz, dominant frequency in the fifth or sixth harmonic 2392 + 40.14 Hz and the interval between the calls is 6.1 + 0.56 seconds. Calls are given 6.39 times per minute.
No relevant conflicts of interest declared.
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