Microbial Evolution & Genomics | Developmental Evolution | Evolutionary/Comparative Genetics | Evolutionary Ecology
Molecular phylodynamics and protein modeling of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV)
International Society for Computational Biology - Latin America 2012, 17 - 21 Mar 2012, MM3
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, and affects salmonids with disastrous results. It was first detected in 1984 in Norway and from then on it has been reported in Canada, United States, Scotland and the Faroe Islands. Recently, an outbreak was recorded in Chile with negative consequences for the local fishing industry. However, few studies have examined available data to test hypotheses associated with the phylogeographic partitioning of the infecting viral population, the population dynamics, or the evolutionary rates and demographic history of ISAV. To explore these issues, we collected relevant sequences of genes coding for both surface proteins from Chile, Canada, and Norway. We addressed questions regarding their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary rates, and demographic history using modern phylogenetic methods.
Our results are consistent with the Norwegian origin hypothesis for the Chilean outbreak clade. In particular, ISAV HPR0 genotype is not the ancestor of all ISAV strains, although SK779/06 (HPR0) shares a common ancestor with the Chilean outbreak clade. Our analyses suggest that ISAV shows hallmarks typical of RNA viruses that can be exploited in epidemiological and surveillance settings. In addition, we hypothesized that genetic diversity of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) region is governed by recombination, probably due to template switching, and that novel fusion gene proteolytic sites confer a selective advantage for the isolates that carry them. Additionally, protein modeling allowed us to relate the results of phylogenetic studies with the predicted structures. This study demonstrates that phylogenetic methods are important tools to predict future outbreaks of ISAV and other salmon pathogens.
No relevant competing interests disclosed.
National Institutes of Health (NIH), R01GM66276
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